cholesterol is a lipid of Sterol Lipids (ST) class. Cholesterol is associated with abnormalities such as Trypanosomiasis, Chagas Disease, Cleft Palate, Chondrodysplasia punctata 2, X-linked dominant and Child syndrome. The involved functions are known as Blood Circulation, Sterol Biosynthesis Pathway, Receptor Mediated Endocytosis, Methylation and Signal. Cholesterol often locates in Animal tissue, Blood, Membrane, Plasma membrane and peroxisome. The associated genes with cholesterol are MBD2 gene, SIM, SLC33A1 gene, Genome and NSDHL gene. The related lipids are Sterols, zymosterol, fecosterol, Total cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol. The related experimental models are Mouse Model, Knock-out, Genetically Engineered Mouse and Disease model.

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To understand associated biological information of cholesterol, we collected biological information of abnormalities, associated pathways, cellular/molecular locations, biological functions, related genes/proteins, lipids and common seen animal/experimental models with organized paragraphs from literatures.

What diseases are associated with cholesterol?

cholesterol is suspected in Atherosclerosis, Hypercholesterolemia, cholesterol gallstones, Obesity, SVEINSSON CHORIORETINAL ATROPHY, Congenital Abnormality and other diseases in descending order of the highest number of associated sentences.

Related references are mostly published in these journals:

Disease Cross reference Weighted score Related literature
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Possible diseases from mapped MeSH terms on references

We collected disease MeSH terms mapped to the references associated with cholesterol

MeSH term MeSH ID Detail
Hemolysis D006461 131 associated lipids
Airway Obstruction D000402 13 associated lipids
Uremia D014511 33 associated lipids
Stomach Ulcer D013276 75 associated lipids
Kidney Failure, Chronic D007676 51 associated lipids
Diarrhea D003967 32 associated lipids
Diabetes Mellitus D003920 90 associated lipids
Uterine Cervical Neoplasms D002583 10 associated lipids
Neoplasms, Experimental D009374 10 associated lipids
Hypoxia D000860 23 associated lipids
Sarcoma, Experimental D012513 13 associated lipids
Graft Occlusion, Vascular D006083 11 associated lipids
Arrhythmias, Cardiac D001145 42 associated lipids
Hypercalcemia D006934 13 associated lipids
Neovascularization, Pathologic D009389 39 associated lipids
Adenocarcinoma D000230 166 associated lipids
Breast Neoplasms D001943 24 associated lipids
Neoplasms D009369 13 associated lipids
Ovarian Neoplasms D010051 10 associated lipids
Diabetic Ketoacidosis D016883 16 associated lipids
Per page 10 20 50 100 | Total 797

PubChem Associated disorders and diseases

What pathways are associated with cholesterol

Lipid pathways are not clear in current pathway databases. We organized associated pathways with cholesterol through full-text articles, including metabolic pathways or pathways of biological mechanisms.

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Pathway name Related literatures
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PubChem Biomolecular Interactions and Pathways

Link to PubChem Biomolecular Interactions and Pathways

What cellular locations are associated with cholesterol?

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Location Cross reference Weighted score Related literatures
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What functions are associated with cholesterol?

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Function Cross reference Weighted score Related literatures

What lipids are associated with cholesterol?

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Lipid concept Cross reference Weighted score Related literatures
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What genes are associated with cholesterol?

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Gene Cross reference Weighted score Related literatures

What common seen animal models are associated with cholesterol?


Knock-out are used in the study 'Acid sphingomyelinase-deficient macrophages have defective cholesterol trafficking and efflux.' (Leventhal AR et al., 2001), Knock-out are used in the study 'On the regulatory role of side-chain hydroxylated oxysterols in the brain. Lessons from CYP27A1 transgenic and Cyp27a1(-/-) mice.' (Ali Z et al., 2013), Knock-out are used in the study 'Regulation of classic and alternative bile acid synthesis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: effects of cholesterol feeding and bile acid depletion.' (Xu G et al., 1998), Knock-out are used in the study 'Functional redundancy of steroid C26-monooxygenase activity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed by biochemical and genetic analyses.' (Johnston JB et al., 2010) and Knock-out are used in the study 'Marked reduction in bile acid synthesis in cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase-deficient mice does not lead to diminished tissue cholesterol turnover or to hypercholesterolemia.' (Schwarz M et al., 1998).

Mouse Model

Mouse Model are used in the study 'Fenofibrate reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption via PPARalpha-dependent modulation of NPC1L1 expression in mouse.' (Valasek MA et al., 2007), Mouse Model are used in the study 'Functional redundancy of steroid C26-monooxygenase activity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed by biochemical and genetic analyses.' (Johnston JB et al., 2010), Mouse Model are used in the study 'Cholic acid aids absorption, biliary secretion, and phase transitions of cholesterol in murine cholelithogenesis.' (Wang DQ et al., 1999), Mouse Model are used in the study 'Feedback inhibition of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome as demonstrated by urinary mevalonate excretion.' (Pappu AS et al., 2002) and Mouse Model are used in the study 'Disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis: prototypic metabolic malformation syndromes.' (Herman GE, 2003).

Disease model

Disease model are used in the study 'Amphotericin B lipid complex or amphotericin B multiple-dose administration to rabbits with elevated plasma cholesterol levels: pharmacokinetics in plasma and blood, plasma lipoprotein levels, distribution in tissues, and renal toxicities.' (Ramaswamy M et al., 2001) and Disease model are used in the study 'Increased cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase expression and size of the bile acid pool in the lactating rat.' (Wooton-Kee CR et al., 2008).

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Model Cross reference Weighted score Related literatures
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NCBI Entrez Crosslinks

All references with cholesterol

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Per page 10 20 50 100 | Total 171571
Authors Title Published Journal PubMed Link
Leng E et al. Synergistic effect of phytochemicals on cholesterol metabolism and lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. 2018 BMC Complement Altern Med pmid:29622007
Donaldson SH and de Aguiar HB Molecular Imaging of Cholesterol and Lipid Distributions in Model Membranes. 2018 J Phys Chem Lett pmid:29521507
Fraz S et al. Gemfibrozil and carbamazepine decrease steroid production in zebrafish testes (Danio rerio). 2018 Aquat. Toxicol. pmid:29494825
Heitzig N et al. Cooperative binding promotes demand-driven recruitment of AnxA8 to cholesterol-containing membranes. 2018 Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids pmid:29306076
Hoseini Z et al. NLRP3 inflammasome: Its regulation and involvement in atherosclerosis. 2018 J. Cell. Physiol. pmid:28345767
Simonen P et al. Desmosterol accumulation in users of amiodarone. 2018 J. Intern. Med. pmid:28861933
Plesnar E et al. Is the cholesterol bilayer domain a barrier to oxygen transport into the eye lens? 2018 Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr pmid:29079282
Formichi P et al. Primary cilium alterations and expression changes of Patched1 proteins in niemann-pick type C disease. 2018 J. Cell. Physiol. pmid:28332184
Safar HA et al. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms among Emirati patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 2018 J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. pmid:28323045
Johnson QR et al. Effects of carotenoids on lipid bilayers. 2018 Phys Chem Chem Phys pmid:29349456
Both T et al. Hydroxychloroquine affects bone resorption both in vitro and in vivo. 2018 J. Cell. Physiol. pmid:28556961
Samardzija D et al. Bisphenol A decreases progesterone synthesis by disrupting cholesterol homeostasis in rat granulosa cells. 2018 Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. pmid:28859904
Ruan B et al. Cholesterol inhibits entotic cell-in-cell formation and actomyosin contraction. 2018 Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. pmid:29198709
Agrawal S et al. Dyslipidaemia in nephrotic syndrome: mechanisms and treatment. 2018 Nat Rev Nephrol pmid:29176657
Yamamoto Y et al. Intracellular cholesterol level regulates sensitivity of glioblastoma cells against temozolomide-induced cell death by modulation of caspase-8 activation via death receptor 5-accumulation and activation in the plasma membrane lipid raft. 2018 Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. pmid:29162448
Shigematsu T et al. Stretch-Induced Interdigitation of a Phospholipid/Cholesterol Bilayer. 2018 J Phys Chem B pmid:29419298
Lu DL et al. Reproducibility of serum oxysterols and lanosterol among postmenopausal women: Results from EPIC-Heidelberg. 2018 Clin. Biochem. pmid:29108727
Rajan S et al. Novel indole and triazole based hybrid molecules exhibit potent anti-adipogenic and antidyslipidemic activity by activating Wnt3a/β-catenin pathway. 2018 Eur J Med Chem pmid:29153558
Panchoo M and Lacko A Scavenger receptor class B type 1 regulates neuroblastoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. 2018 Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. pmid:29128352
Chen L et al. Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome attenuates foam cell formation of THP-1 macrophages by suppressing ox-LDL uptake and promoting cholesterol efflux. 2018 Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. pmid:29122594
Gilbert S et al. Characterization of an Aldolase Involved in Cholesterol Side Chain Degradation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. 2018 J. Bacteriol. pmid:29109182
Stoeck IK et al. Hepatitis C Virus Replication Depends on Endosomal Cholesterol Homeostasis. 2018 J. Virol. pmid:29046459
Singh K and Chan HM Association of blood polychlorinated biphenyls and cholesterol levels among Canadian Inuit. 2018 Environ. Res. pmid:29035785
Asif M et al. TG haplotype in the LRP8 is associated with myocardial infarction in south Indian population. 2018 Gene pmid:29032149
Singh P et al. PDIM and SL1 accumulation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is associated with mce4A expression. 2018 Gene pmid:28988960
Lin Y et al. Oxidation of sitosterol and campesterol in foods upon cooking with liquid margarines without and with added plant sterol esters. 2018 Food Chem pmid:28958544
Bhojoo U et al. Temperature induced lipid membrane restructuring and changes in nanomechanics. 2018 Biochim. Biophys. Acta pmid:29248477
Crowson CS et al. Impact of risk factors associated with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. 2018 Ann. Rheum. Dis. pmid:28877868
Liu S et al. Discriminating between adaptive and carcinogenic liver hypertrophy in rat studies using logistic ridge regression analysis of toxicogenomic data: The mode of action and predictive models. 2017 Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. pmid:28108177
Villalpando DM et al. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation prevents the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in arteries from orchidectomized rats. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:28968462
Doktorova M et al. Cholesterol Promotes Protein Binding by Affecting Membrane Electrostatics and Solvation Properties. 2017 Biophys. J. pmid:29117524
Malabed R et al. Sterol-recognition ability and membrane-disrupting activity of Ornithogalum saponin OSW-1 and usual 3-O-glycosyl saponins. 2017 Biochim. Biophys. Acta pmid:28947142
Loffredo MR et al. Membrane perturbing activities and structural properties of the frog-skin derived peptide Esculentin-1a(1-21)NH and its Diastereomer Esc(1-21)-1c: Correlation with their antipseudomonal and cytotoxic activity. 2017 Biochim. Biophys. Acta pmid:28912103
Russo G et al. Cholesterol affects the interaction between an ionic liquid and phospholipid vesicles. A study by differential scanning calorimetry and nanoplasmonic sensing. 2017 Biochim. Biophys. Acta pmid:28912102
Liu M et al. Prevention of cholesterol gallstone disease by schaftoside in lithogenic diet-induced C57BL/6 mouse model. 2017 Eur. J. Pharmacol. pmid:28993159
Feng D et al. Bisphenol A promotes cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 cells by up-regulation of NPC1L1 expression. 2017 Lipids Health Dis pmid:28057006
Thyagarajan B et al. Perturbation to Cholesterol at the Neuromuscular Junction Confers Botulinum Neurotoxin A Sensitivity to Neonatal Mice. 2017 Toxicol. Sci. pmid:28645175
Wang Y et al. Targeting the Enterohepatic Bile Acid Signaling Induces Hepatic Autophagy via a CYP7A1-AKT-mTOR Axis in Mice. 2017 Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol pmid:28275691
Mesmin B et al. Sterol transfer, PI4P consumption, and control of membrane lipid order by endogenous OSBP. 2017 EMBO J. pmid:28978670
Costabile A et al. An in vivo assessment of the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum ECGC 13110402 in normal to mildly hypercholesterolaemic adults. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:29228000
Rouviere E et al. Identification of Two New Cholesterol Interaction Sites on the A Adenosine Receptor. 2017 Biophys. J. pmid:29211995
de Candia P et al. A unique plasma microRNA profile defines type 2 diabetes progression. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:29200427
Alsubheen SA et al. The effects of diurnal Ramadan fasting on energy expenditure and substrate oxidation in healthy men. 2017 Br. J. Nutr. pmid:29198194
Lockhart C and Klimov DK Cholesterol Changes the Mechanisms of Aβ Peptide Binding to the DMPC Bilayer. 2017 J Chem Inf Model pmid:28910085
Dang EV et al. Oxysterol Restraint of Cholesterol Synthesis Prevents AIM2 Inflammasome Activation. 2017 Cell pmid:29033131
Guimarães KSL et al. Effect of maternal dyslipidaemia on the cardiorespiratory physiology and biochemical parameters in male rat offspring. 2017 Br. J. Nutr. pmid:29173205
Chalmers AD et al. Nonlinear dynamics of early atherosclerotic plaque formation may determine the efficacy of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in plaque regression. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:29161303
Wang SH et al. Embryonic cholesterol esterification is regulated by a cyclic AMP-dependent pathway in yolk sac membrane-derived endodermal epithelial cells. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:29161294
Petta S et al. Insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism drive steatosis and fibrosis risk in young females with PCOS. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:29161258
Lucas JE et al. An electronic health record based model predicts statin adherence, LDL cholesterol, and cardiovascular disease in the United States Military Health System. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:29155848
Lee G et al. Post-transcriptional Regulation of De Novo Lipogenesis by mTORC1-S6K1-SRPK2 Signaling. 2017 Cell pmid:29153836
Widenmaier SB et al. NRF1 Is an ER Membrane Sensor that Is Central to Cholesterol Homeostasis. 2017 Cell pmid:29149604
Socrier L et al. Cholesterol-nitrone conjugates as protective agents against lipid oxidation: A model membrane study. 2017 Biochim. Biophys. Acta pmid:28982534
Khondker A et al. Membrane Cholesterol Reduces Polymyxin B Nephrotoxicity in Renal Membrane Analogs. 2017 Biophys. J. pmid:29117525
Hayward N et al. U-shaped relationship between serum phosphate and cardiovascular risk: A retrospective cohort study. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:29117214
Wang Y et al. Barley β-glucan reduces blood cholesterol levels via interrupting bile acid metabolism. 2017 Br. J. Nutr. pmid:29115200
Michos ED et al. Use of the Coronary Artery Calcium Score in Discussion of Initiation of Statin Therapy in Primary Prevention. 2017 Mayo Clin. Proc. pmid:29108840
Rajapakse D et al. Serum starvation of ARPE-19 changes the cellular distribution of cholesterol and Fibulin3 in patterns reminiscent of age-related macular degeneration. 2017 Exp. Cell Res. pmid:29097185
Liu JR et al. Change in nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in adults with prediabetes. 2017 Medicine (Baltimore) pmid:29095295
Bulum T et al. Total Serum Cholesterol Increases Risk for Development and Progression of Nonproliferative Retinopathy in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Without Therapeutic Intervention: Prospective, Observational Study. 2017 Arch. Med. Res. pmid:29089151
Zhang YY et al. Transcriptome analysis of mRNA and microRNAs in intramuscular fat tissues of castrated and intact male Chinese Qinchuan cattle. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:29073274
Mast N et al. Transcriptional and post-translational changes in the brain of mice deficient in cholesterol removal mediated by cytochrome P450 46A1 (CYP46A1). 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:29073233
Chengmao X et al. ABCA1 affects placental function via trophoblast and macrophage. 2017 Life Sci. pmid:29066252
More VR et al. Glucagon like receptor 1/ glucagon dual agonist acutely enhanced hepatic lipid clearance and suppressed de novo lipogenesis in mice. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:29065174
Silveira LS et al. Effect of an acute moderate-exercise session on metabolic and inflammatory profile of PPAR-α knockout mice. 2017 Cell Biochem. Funct. pmid:29063619
Bai YC et al. Effect of Tumor Microenvironment on Selective Uptake of Boric Acid in HepG2 Human Hepatoma Cells. 2017 Anticancer Res. pmid:29061819
Darwiche R et al. Plant pathogenesis-related proteins of the cacao fungal pathogen differ in their lipid-binding specificities. 2017 J. Biol. Chem. pmid:29042440
Taghavie-Moghadam PL et al. STAT4 Regulates the CD8 Regulatory T Cell/T Follicular Helper Cell Axis and Promotes Atherogenesis in Insulin-Resistant Mice. 2017 J. Immunol. pmid:29055004
Koka S et al. Endothelial NLRP3 inflammasome activation and arterial neointima formation associated with acid sphingomyelinase during hypercholesterolemia. 2017 Redox Biol pmid:28633109
Hong KN et al. How Low to Go With Glucose, Cholesterol, and Blood Pressure in Primary Prevention of CVD. 2017 J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. pmid:29050566
Ruscitti P et al. Subclinical atherosclerosis and history of cardiovascular events in Italian patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Results from a cross-sectional, multicenter GIRRCS (Gruppo Italiano di Ricerca in Reumatologia Clinica e Sperimentale) study. 2017 Medicine (Baltimore) pmid:29049200
Jiang T et al. Leonurine Prevents Atherosclerosis Via Promoting the Expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in a Pparγ/Lxrα Signaling Pathway-Dependent Manner. 2017 Cell. Physiol. Biochem. pmid:29045950
Magnussen C et al. Sex Differences and Similarities in Atrial Fibrillation Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Mortality in Community Cohorts: Results From the BiomarCaRE Consortium (Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe). 2017 Circulation pmid:29038167
Manti S et al. Association between Allergies and Hypercholesterolemia: A Systematic Review. 2017 Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. pmid:29035883
Cao Y et al. Orally Administered Baker's Yeast β-Glucan Promotes Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis in the Livers of Obesity and Diabetes Model Mice. 2017 J. Agric. Food Chem. pmid:29035040
Herneisen AL et al. A Budding-Defective M2 Mutant Exhibits Reduced Membrane Interaction, Insensitivity to Cholesterol, and Perturbed Interdomain Coupling. 2017 Biochemistry pmid:29034683
Chang WH et al. Effects of Sterol-Like Additives on Phase Transition Behavior of Ion-Pair Amphiphile Bilayers. 2017 J Oleo Sci pmid:29021491
Song JJ et al. Effects of microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum LIP-1 on the gut microbiota of hyperlipidaemic rats. 2017 Br. J. Nutr. pmid:29017628
Cui C et al. Modulation of the gut microbiota by the mixture of fish oil and krill oil in high-fat diet-induced obesity mice. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:29016689
Bobin-Dubigeon C et al. Liver X Receptor (LXR)-regulated Genes of Cholesterol Trafficking and Breast Cancer Severity. 2017 Anticancer Res. pmid:28982861
Sané AT et al. Understanding Chylomicron Retention Disease Through Sar1b Gtpase Gene Disruption: Insight From Cell Culture. 2017 Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. pmid:28982670
Lin X et al. Endogenous Cholesterol Excretion Is Negatively Associated With Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Humans. 2017 Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. pmid:28982667
Whiteley L et al. Cholesterol and host cell surface proteins contribute to cell-cell fusion induced by the Burkholderia type VI secretion system 5. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:28973030
Li BR et al. miR-758-5p regulates cholesterol uptake via targeting the CD36 3'UTR. 2017 Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. pmid:28965954
Lévesque V et al. Relation Between a Simple Lifestyle Risk Score and Established Biological Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease. 2017 Am. J. Cardiol. pmid:28965712
Sikorski A 2014 NICE cholesterol guidelines. 2017 Br J Gen Pract pmid:28963409
Patel SA et al. Chronic disease concordance within Indian households: A cross-sectional study. 2017 PLoS Med. pmid:28961237
Li Z et al. Porcine Hemagglutinating Encephalomyelitis Virus Enters Neuro-2a Cells via Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in a Rab5-, Cholesterol-, and pH-Dependent Manner. 2017 J. Virol. pmid:28956766
Gózd-Barszczewska A et al. Gut microbiome as a biomarker of cardiometabolic disorders. 2017 Ann Agric Environ Med pmid:28954482
Janić M et al. Sub-therapeutic doses of fluvastatin and valsartan are more effective than therapeutic doses in providing beneficial cardiovascular pleiotropic effects in rats: A proof of concept study. 2017 Vascul. Pharmacol. pmid:28951255
Storti F et al. Regulated efflux of photoreceptor outer segment-derived cholesterol by human RPE cells. 2017 Exp. Eye Res. pmid:28943268
Moghadasian MH et al. Inhibitory Effects of North American Wild Rice on Monocyte Adhesion and Inflammatory Modulators in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Knockout Mice. 2017 J. Agric. Food Chem. pmid:28942638
Trenteseaux C et al. Perinatal Hypercholesterolemia Exacerbates Atherosclerosis Lesions in Offspring by Altering Metabolism of Trimethylamine-N-Oxide and Bile Acids. 2017 Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. pmid:28935756
Kusters P et al. Constitutive CD40 Signaling in Dendritic Cells Limits Atherosclerosis by Provoking Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Ensuing Cholesterol Malabsorption. 2017 Am. J. Pathol. pmid:28935569
Zhao M et al. Sex differences in risk factor management of coronary heart disease across three regions. 2017 Heart pmid:28931567
Lyu J et al. Pharmacological blockade of cholesterol trafficking by cepharanthine in endothelial cells suppresses angiogenesis and tumor growth. 2017 Cancer Lett. pmid:28923401
Robertson J et al. Interleukin-6 blockade raises LDL via reduced catabolism rather than via increased synthesis: a cytokine-specific mechanism for cholesterol changes in rheumatoid arthritis. 2017 Ann. Rheum. Dis. pmid:28916714
Arcarons N et al. Cholesterol added prior to vitrification on the cryotolerance of immature and in vitro matured bovine oocytes. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:28910399
Tiburcio TC et al. Connexin32 deficiency is associated with liver injury, inflammation and oxidative stress in experimental non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. 2017 Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. pmid:27859493
O'Donovan CB et al. Metabotyping for the development of tailored dietary advice solutions in a European population: the Food4Me study. 2017 Br. J. Nutr. pmid:29056103