cholesterol is a lipid of Sterol Lipids (ST) class. Cholesterol is associated with abnormalities such as Trypanosomiasis, Chagas Disease, Cleft Palate, Chondrodysplasia punctata 2, X-linked dominant and Child syndrome. The involved functions are known as Blood Circulation, Sterol Biosynthesis Pathway, Receptor Mediated Endocytosis, Methylation and Signal. Cholesterol often locates in Animal tissue, Blood, Membrane, Plasma membrane and peroxisome. The associated genes with cholesterol are MBD2 gene, SIM, SLC33A1 gene, Genome and NSDHL gene. The related lipids are Sterols, zymosterol, fecosterol, Total cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol. The related experimental models are Mouse Model, Knock-out, Genetically Engineered Mouse and Disease model.

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To understand associated biological information of cholesterol, we collected biological information of abnormalities, associated pathways, cellular/molecular locations, biological functions, related genes/proteins, lipids and common seen animal/experimental models with organized paragraphs from literatures.

What diseases are associated with cholesterol?

cholesterol is suspected in Atherosclerosis, Hypercholesterolemia, cholesterol gallstones, Obesity, SVEINSSON CHORIORETINAL ATROPHY, Congenital Abnormality and other diseases in descending order of the highest number of associated sentences.

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Disease Cross reference Weighted score Related literature
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Possible diseases from mapped MeSH terms on references

We collected disease MeSH terms mapped to the references associated with cholesterol

MeSH term MeSH ID Detail
Burnout, Professional D002055 1 associated lipids
Arrhythmia, Sinus D001146 1 associated lipids
Dicrocoeliasis D004011 1 associated lipids
Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic D020790 1 associated lipids
Needlestick Injuries D016602 1 associated lipids
Postcholecystectomy Syndrome D017562 1 associated lipids
Aortitis D001025 1 associated lipids
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PubChem Associated disorders and diseases

What pathways are associated with cholesterol

Lipid pathways are not clear in current pathway databases. We organized associated pathways with cholesterol through full-text articles, including metabolic pathways or pathways of biological mechanisms.

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Pathway name Related literatures
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PubChem Biomolecular Interactions and Pathways

Link to PubChem Biomolecular Interactions and Pathways

What cellular locations are associated with cholesterol?

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What functions are associated with cholesterol?

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Function Cross reference Weighted score Related literatures

What lipids are associated with cholesterol?

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Lipid concept Cross reference Weighted score Related literatures
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What genes are associated with cholesterol?

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Gene Cross reference Weighted score Related literatures

What common seen animal models are associated with cholesterol?


Knock-out are used in the study 'Acid sphingomyelinase-deficient macrophages have defective cholesterol trafficking and efflux.' (Leventhal AR et al., 2001), Knock-out are used in the study 'On the regulatory role of side-chain hydroxylated oxysterols in the brain. Lessons from CYP27A1 transgenic and Cyp27a1(-/-) mice.' (Ali Z et al., 2013), Knock-out are used in the study 'Regulation of classic and alternative bile acid synthesis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: effects of cholesterol feeding and bile acid depletion.' (Xu G et al., 1998), Knock-out are used in the study 'Functional redundancy of steroid C26-monooxygenase activity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed by biochemical and genetic analyses.' (Johnston JB et al., 2010) and Knock-out are used in the study 'Marked reduction in bile acid synthesis in cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase-deficient mice does not lead to diminished tissue cholesterol turnover or to hypercholesterolemia.' (Schwarz M et al., 1998).

Mouse Model

Mouse Model are used in the study 'Fenofibrate reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption via PPARalpha-dependent modulation of NPC1L1 expression in mouse.' (Valasek MA et al., 2007), Mouse Model are used in the study 'Functional redundancy of steroid C26-monooxygenase activity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis revealed by biochemical and genetic analyses.' (Johnston JB et al., 2010), Mouse Model are used in the study 'Cholic acid aids absorption, biliary secretion, and phase transitions of cholesterol in murine cholelithogenesis.' (Wang DQ et al., 1999), Mouse Model are used in the study 'Feedback inhibition of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in patients with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome as demonstrated by urinary mevalonate excretion.' (Pappu AS et al., 2002) and Mouse Model are used in the study 'Disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis: prototypic metabolic malformation syndromes.' (Herman GE, 2003).

Disease model

Disease model are used in the study 'Amphotericin B lipid complex or amphotericin B multiple-dose administration to rabbits with elevated plasma cholesterol levels: pharmacokinetics in plasma and blood, plasma lipoprotein levels, distribution in tissues, and renal toxicities.' (Ramaswamy M et al., 2001) and Disease model are used in the study 'Increased cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase expression and size of the bile acid pool in the lactating rat.' (Wooton-Kee CR et al., 2008).

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Model Cross reference Weighted score Related literatures
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NCBI Entrez Crosslinks

All references with cholesterol

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Authors Title Published Journal PubMed Link
Zhang Z et al. Inhibitory effect of trans-caryophyllene (TC) on leukocyte-endothelial attachment. 2017 Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. pmid:28624443
Wehbe M et al. Development and optimization of an injectable formulation of copper diethyldithiocarbamate, an active anticancer agent. 2017 Int J Nanomedicine pmid:28615941
Yu J et al. Adverse effects of chronic exposure to nonylphenol on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in male rats. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:28686624
Ampawong S et al. Sericin improves heart and liver mitochondrial architecture in hypercholesterolaemic rats and maintains pancreatic and adrenal cell biosynthesis. 2017 Exp. Cell Res. pmid:28684113
Frantz EDC et al. High, but not low, exercise volume shifts the balance of renin-angiotensin system toward ACE2/Mas receptor axis in skeletal muscle in obese rats. 2017 Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. pmid:28679623
Xue Y et al. Association between spicy food consumption and lipid profiles in adults: a nationwide population-based study. 2017 Br. J. Nutr. pmid:28673367
Omar I et al. Slfn2 mutation-induced loss of T-cell quiescence leads to elevated de novo sterol synthesis. 2017 Immunology pmid:28672048
Agostinis-Sobrinho C et al. Muscular fitness, adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. 2017 Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis pmid:28669448
Zhang Q et al. Maternal chromium restriction modulates miRNA profiles related to lipid metabolism disorder in mice offspring. 2017 Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood) pmid:28669221
Krautbauer S et al. Diagnostic Value of Systemic Cholesteryl Ester/Free Cholesterol Ratio in Hepatocellular Carcinoma. 2017 Anticancer Res. pmid:28668842
Koide M et al. Cholesterol crystal depth in coronary atherosclerotic plaques: A novel index of plaque vulnerability using optical frequency domain imaging. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:28665970
Ji W et al. Effects of canagliflozin on weight loss in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:28665967
Nathan DG Cholesterol: the debate should be terminated. 2017 FASEB J. pmid:28663517
Chayarop K et al. Hypoglycaemic activity of Mathurameha, a Thai traditional herbal formula aqueous extract, and its effect on biochemical profiles of streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats. 2017 BMC Complement Altern Med pmid:28662699
Jończyk-Skórka K and Kowalski J [The assessment of risk factors for glucose metabolism disorders]. 2017 Pol. Merkur. Lekarski pmid:28662009
Richter CK et al. Effects of isoflavone-containing soya protein on ex vivo cholesterol efflux, vascular function and blood markers of CVD risk in adults with moderately elevated blood pressure: a dose-response randomised controlled trial. 2017 Br. J. Nutr. pmid:28661316
Leeper H et al. Preliminary evaluation of serum total cholesterol concentrations in dogs with osteosarcoma. 2017 J Small Anim Pract pmid:28660727
Widomska J et al. Cholesterol Bilayer Domains in the Eye Lens Health: A Review. 2017 Cell Biochem. Biophys. pmid:28660427
Oladipo OO et al. Dyslipdemia induced by chronic low dose co-exposure to lead, cadmium and manganese in rats: the role of oxidative stress. 2017 Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. pmid:28654832
Bao CD et al. [Interaction between family history of diabetes and hyperlipidemia on risk of diabetes in population with normotension in Harbin: a cross-sectional study]. 2017 Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi pmid:28651396
Powers JM et al. Polypharmacy and sun exposure: Implications for mitochondrial DNA deletions in skin. 2017 J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol. pmid:28649007
Zhang ZB et al. [Prevalence of dyslipidemia and normal blood lipids level in Uygur population in Kashgar area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region]. 2017 Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi pmid:28647967
Baumgartner S et al. The effects of amoxicillin and vancomycin on parameters reflecting cholesterol metabolism. 2017 Chem. Phys. Lipids pmid:28647339
Moreno-Navarrete JM et al. mRNA is linked to cholesterol metabolism in adipose tissue. 2017 FASEB J. pmid:28646016
Tóth EA et al. Nanotubes connecting B lymphocytes: High impact of differentiation-dependent lipid composition on their growth and mechanics. 2017 Biochim. Biophys. Acta pmid:28645851
Caruana BT et al. Site-1 protease, a novel metabolic target for glioblastoma. 2017 Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. pmid:28645614
Guevara G et al. Functional characterization of 3-ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylases in Rhodococcus ruber strain chol-4. 2017 J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. pmid:28642093
Zulueta Díaz YLM and Fanani ML Crossregulation between the insertion of Hexadecylphosphocholine (miltefosine) into lipid membranes and their rheology and lateral structure. 2017 Biochim. Biophys. Acta pmid:28642044
Dos Santos AG et al. Changes in membrane biophysical properties induced by the Budesonide/Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complex. 2017 Biochim. Biophys. Acta pmid:28642042
Leignadier J et al. Improving the efficacy of hormone therapy in breast cancer: The role of cholesterol metabolism in SERM-mediated autophagy, cell differentiation and death. 2017 Biochem. Pharmacol. pmid:28642035
Eissa FA et al. POSSIBLE HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC EFFECT OF GINGER AND ROSEMARY OILS IN RATS. 2017 Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med pmid:28638882
Matsugaki R et al. Effectiveness of workplace exercise supervised by a physical therapist among nurses conducting shift work: A randomized controlled trial. 2017 J Occup Health pmid:28638000
Borger JG et al. Caveolin-1 Influences LFA-1 Redistribution upon TCR Stimulation in CD8 T Cells. 2017 J. Immunol. pmid:28637901
Ambrosius W et al. Predictive value of serum transthyretin for outcome in acute ischemic stroke. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:28636639
El-Far YM et al. Nanoformulated natural therapeutics for management of streptozotocin-induced diabetes: potential use of curcumin nanoformulation. 2017 Nanomedicine (Lond) pmid:28635562
Schoeman JC et al. Fetal Metabolic Stress Disrupts Immune Homeostasis and Induces Proinflammatory Responses in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1- and Combination Antiretroviral Therapy-Exposed Infants. 2017 J. Infect. Dis. pmid:28633455
Zhou S et al. Dietary Intake of Structured Lipids with Different Contents of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids on Obesity Prevention in C57BL/6J Mice. 2017 J. Food Sci. pmid:28631820
Pereira ENGDS et al. Hepatic microvascular dysfunction and increased advanced glycation end products are components of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:28628674
Zhang D et al. Lipogenic transcription factor ChREBP mediates fructose-induced metabolic adaptations to prevent hepatotoxicity. 2017 J. Clin. Invest. pmid:28628040
Hall AM and Finck BN ChREBP refines the hepatic response to fructose to protect the liver from injury. 2017 J. Clin. Invest. pmid:28628039
Saad DY et al. Effects of Karela (Bitter Melon; Momordica charantia) on genes of lipids and carbohydrates metabolism in experimental hypercholesterolemia: biochemical, molecular and histopathological study. 2017 BMC Complement Altern Med pmid:28623919
Nogueira LC et al. Moderate Alcoholic Beer Consumption: The Effects on the Lipid Profile and Insulin Sensitivity of Adult Men. 2017 J. Food Sci. pmid:28621438
Wang C et al. Cholesterol Enhances Colorectal Cancer Progression via ROS Elevation and MAPK Signaling Pathway Activation. 2017 Cell. Physiol. Biochem. pmid:28618417
Huang Z et al. Smell and Taste Dysfunction Is Associated with Higher Serum Total Cholesterol Concentrations in Chinese Adults. 2017 J. Nutr. pmid:28615376
Berryman CE et al. Inclusion of Almonds in a Cholesterol-Lowering Diet Improves Plasma HDL Subspecies and Cholesterol Efflux to Serum in Normal-Weight Individuals with Elevated LDL Cholesterol. 2017 J. Nutr. pmid:28615375
Minol JP et al. Focal induction of ROS-release to trigger local vascular degeneration. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:28614411
Dotson RJ et al. Influence of Cholesterol on the Oxygen Permeability of Membranes: Insight from Atomistic Simulations. 2017 Biophys. J. pmid:28591606
Wang Y et al. Relationship of diabetes with renal dysfunction in hypertensive adults. 2017 Medicine (Baltimore) pmid:28614254
Ribeiro MC et al. Hippocampal and cerebellar histological changes and their behavioural repercussions caused by brain ischaemic hypoxia experimentally induced by sodium nitrite. 2017 Behav. Brain Res. pmid:28606628
Frame NM et al. Serum amyloid A self-assembles with phospholipids to form stable protein-rich nanoparticles with a distinct structure: A hypothetical function of SAA as a "molecular mop" in immune response. 2017 J. Struct. Biol. pmid:28645735
Cutovic M et al. Clinoptilolite for Treatment of Dyslipidemia: Preliminary Efficacy Study. 2017 J Altern Complement Med pmid:28605233
Jamasbi E et al. Phosphorylation of a full length amyloid-β peptide modulates its amyloid aggregation, cell binding and neurotoxic properties. 2017 Mol Biosyst pmid:28642958
Worthmann A et al. Cold-induced conversion of cholesterol to bile acids in mice shapes the gut microbiome and promotes adaptive thermogenesis. 2017 Nat. Med. pmid:28604703
Wang YJ et al. Cholesterol and fatty acids regulate cysteine ubiquitylation of ACAT2 through competitive oxidation. 2017 Nat. Cell Biol. pmid:28604676
Liang B et al. MicroRNA-20a/b regulates cholesterol efflux through post-transcriptional repression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. 2017 Biochim. Biophys. Acta pmid:28602962
Mound A et al. Non-senescent keratinocytes organize in plasma membrane submicrometric lipid domains enriched in sphingomyelin and involved in re-epithelialization. 2017 Biochim. Biophys. Acta pmid:28599891
van der Heijden T et al. NLRP3 Inflammasome Inhibition by MCC950 Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesion Development in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice-Brief Report. 2017 Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. pmid:28596375
Akiyama H and Hirabayashi Y A novel function for glucocerebrosidase as a regulator of sterylglucoside metabolism. 2017 Biochim. Biophys. Acta pmid:28596107
Othman RA et al. Thyroid Hormone Status in Sitosterolemia Is Modified by Ezetimibe. 2017 J. Pediatr. pmid:28625503
Stopsack KH et al. Cholesterol uptake and regulation in high-grade and lethal prostate cancers. 2017 Carcinogenesis pmid:28595267
Xu H et al. Association between red blood cell distribution width and Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis. 2017 Medicine (Baltimore) pmid:28591051
Schumacher JD et al. The effect of fibroblast growth factor 15 deficiency on the development of high fat diet induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. 2017 Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. pmid:28673684
Engin A Obesity-associated Breast Cancer: Analysis of risk factors. 2017 Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. pmid:28585217
Thomsen T et al. The efficacy of motivational counselling and SMS reminders on daily sitting time in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomised controlled trial. 2017 Ann. Rheum. Dis. pmid:28584189
Errico TL et al. LXR-dependent regulation of macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport is impaired in a model of genetic diabesity. 2017 Transl Res pmid:28583767
Liang C et al. PTPRO Promotes Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Induced Oxidative Stress and Cell Apoptosis through Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor κB Pathway. 2017 Cell. Physiol. Biochem. pmid:28578349
Oka S et al. Role of Heat Shock Factor 1 in Conserving Cholesterol Transportation in Leydig Cell Steroidogenesis via Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein. 2017 Endocrinology pmid:28575284
Rungaldier S et al. Structure-function analysis of human stomatin: A mutation study. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:28575093
Tefas LR et al. Development of antiproliferative long-circulating liposomes co-encapsulating doxorubicin and curcumin, through the use of a quality-by-design approach. 2017 Drug Des Devel Ther pmid:28579758
Feio DCA et al. Organic effects of associating paclitaxel with a lipid-based nanoparticle system on a nonhuman primate, . 2017 Int J Nanomedicine pmid:28572727
Camargo GL et al. Raman spectral characteristics of neck and head of femur in low-density lipoprotein receptor gene knockout mice submitted to treadmill aerobic training. 2017 J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol. pmid:28570909
Motta-Romero H et al. Isolation of Egg Yolk Granules as Low-Cholesterol Emulsifying Agent in Mayonnaise. 2017 J. Food Sci. pmid:28556199
Taylor NMI et al. Structure of the human multidrug transporter ABCG2. 2017 Nature pmid:28554189
Risselada HJ Membrane Fusion Stalks and Lipid Rafts: A Love-Hate Relationship. 2017 Biophys. J. pmid:28522140
Hildreth A et al. Rapid whole-genome sequencing identifies a novel homozygous variant associated with Niemann-Pick type C1 disease in a 7-week-old male with cholestasis. 2017 Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud pmid:28550066
Zhu RG et al. Pectin penta-oligogalacturonide reduces cholesterol accumulation by promoting bile acid biosynthesis and excretion in high-cholesterol-fed mice. 2017 Chem. Biol. Interact. pmid:28549616
Jain RB Associations between the levels of thyroid hormones and lipid/lipoprotein levels: Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012. 2017 Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. pmid:28549315
Paige E et al. Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction: An Individual-Participant-Data Meta-Analysis. 2017 Am. J. Epidemiol. pmid:28549073
Milos S et al. Impact of ventilation-induced lung injury on the structure and function of lamellar bodies. 2017 Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. pmid:28546153
Rhee EJ et al. Increased risk for diabetes development in subjects with large variation in total cholesterol levels in 2,827,950 Koreans: A nationwide population-based study. 2017 PLoS ONE pmid:28545051
Fathi M et al. Effect of probiotic supplementation and genotype on growth performance, carcass traits, hematological parameters and immunity of growing rabbits under hot environmental conditions. 2017 Anim. Sci. J. pmid:28544086
Matos Cordeiro Borges M et al. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction coupled with LC-APCI-MS-MS for the selective determination of serum cholesterol. 2017 Electrophoresis pmid:28543542
Kaakinen M et al. A rare-variant test for high-dimensional data. 2017 Eur. J. Hum. Genet. pmid:28537275
Kawakubo M et al. Cloning of Helicobacter suis cholesterol α-glucosyltransferase and production of an antibody capable of detecting it in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gastric tissue sections. 2017 Histochem. Cell Biol. pmid:28534071
Samanta D et al. Manipulation of Host Cholesterol by Obligate Intracellular Bacteria. 2017 Front Cell Infect Microbiol pmid:28529926
Cukier AMO et al. Structure-function relationships in reconstituted HDL: Focus on antioxidative activity and cholesterol efflux capacity. 2017 Biochim. Biophys. Acta pmid:28529180
Ditiatkovski M et al. Apolipoprotein A-I Mimetic Peptides: Discordance Between In Vitro and In Vivo Properties-Brief Report. 2017 Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. pmid:28522696
Ning Y et al. Cholesterol metabolites alleviate injured liver function and decrease mortality in an LPS-induced mouse model. 2017 Metab. Clin. Exp. pmid:28521882
Murphy BA et al. siRNA-mediated inhibition of SREBP cleavage-activating protein reduces dyslipidemia in spontaneously dysmetabolic rhesus monkeys. 2017 Metab. Clin. Exp. pmid:28521874
Bohlen CJ et al. Diverse Requirements for Microglial Survival, Specification, and Function Revealed by Defined-Medium Cultures. 2017 Neuron pmid:28521131
Taborsky M et al. Red or white wine consumption effect on atherosclerosis in healthy individuals (In Vino Veritas study). 2017 Bratisl Lek Listy pmid:28516793
Li CH et al. Puerarin promotes ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux and decreases cellular lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages. 2017 Eur. J. Pharmacol. pmid:28576406
Wang A et al. A Cheap and Convenient Method of Liposome Preparation Using Glass Beads as a Source of Shear Force. 2017 AAPS PharmSciTech pmid:28560505
Zhao K and Ridgway ND Oxysterol-Binding Protein-Related Protein 1L Regulates Cholesterol Egress from the Endo-Lysosomal System. 2017 Cell Rep pmid:28564600
Gregus M et al. Non-aqueous capillary electrophoretic separation of cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol after derivatization with Girard P reagent. 2017 Chem. Phys. Lipids pmid:28583433
Oki E et al. Polymorphisms of the TNF-α gene interact with plasma fatty acids on inflammatory biomarker profile: a population-based, cross-sectional study in São Paulo, Brazil. 2017 Br. J. Nutr. pmid:28633686
Cardenia V et al. Dietary effects of Raphanus sativus cv Sango on lipid and oxysterols accumulation in rat brain: A lipidomic study on a non-genetic obesity model. 2017 Chem. Phys. Lipids pmid:28539223
Gambert S et al. Cholesterol metabolism and glaucoma: Modulation of Muller cell membrane organization by 24S-hydroxycholesterol. 2017 Chem. Phys. Lipids pmid:28576383
Soules R et al. Improvement of 5,6α-epoxycholesterol, 5,6β-epoxycholesterol, cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol and 6-oxo-cholestan-3β,5α-diol recovery for quantification by GC/MS. 2017 Chem. Phys. Lipids pmid:28554594
Elderdfi M et al. MPP1 interacts with DOPC/SM/Cholesterol in an artificial membrane system using Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer. 2017 Gen. Physiol. Biophys. pmid:28653654